The ketogenic diet (KD), a restrictive diet, is mainly characterized by high-fat content, low or no carbohydrate content, and low or normal protein content. This review aimed to address the main syndromes or diseases in which the therapeutic use of KD can be beneficial. One of the main clinical indications of KD has been, for some time, in the treatment of epilepsy refractory to the use of medications, with satisfactory results in the control of seizures. Recently, studies have addressed the metabolism of ketone bodies caused by KD, in the adjuvant treatment of tumors and endocrine disorders, such as diabetes and obesity, with promising results. In this work, the therapeutic aspect of KD was analyzed, as an aid in the control of pre-existing diseases, and that being a very restrictive diet with controversial effects, its use may be limited and it is not advisable to maintain it for long periods or without the proper follow-up.
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