Introduction: Dental treatment for pregnant women is still a source of insecurity for many professionals, including those in the dental field. Among the changes present is the increase in the rate of dental caries, acid enamel erosion, and, of paramount importance, a greater predisposition to periodontal disease. Objective: It was to present the main considerations of dental care and treatment in pregnant and lactating women through a concise systematic review. Methods: The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The search was carried out from December 2022 to February 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases, using articles from 2014 to 2022. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results and Conclusion: A total of 120 articles were found, 29 articles were evaluated in full and 16 were included and developed in this systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 20 studies with a high risk of bias and 32 studies that did not meet GRADE. Drug therapy in pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as any form of surgical intervention, always requires a careful assessment of the risks potentially involved in this practice. In this way, the dental surgeon must prescribe rationally and responsibly, to avoid the undesirable effects that may be caused by the use of medications. It is of paramount importance, the constantly updating of the professional, through the search for recent information in updated references or specialized centers, about the drugs and their possible harmful effects on the mother and the child.
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