Introduction: Temporal arteritis (TA), or giant cell arteritis, is a systemic autoimmune vasculitis that affects patients over 50 years of age. Temporal artery biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, although it has low sensitivity. It was shown that TA can lead to irreversible blindness in about 20% of untreated cases. Objective: A concise systematic review was carried out to contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of temporal arteritis, assessing whether a series of patients met the clinical and laboratory criteria for diagnosis, regardless of the biopsy result, as well as whether these results alter the management of these patients. Methods: The research was carried out from December 2022 to January 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases, following the PRISMA rules for systematic review. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. Results and Conclusion: A total of 140 articles were found, and a total of 32 articles were evaluated and 6 were included in this systematic review. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 32 studies with a high risk of bias and 43 studies that did not meet GRADE. It was concluded that, regardless of the biopsy result, all patients should immediately start treatment with corticosteroids. Early diagnosis and treatment must be performed to avoid compromising the contralateral eye. In addition, it is necessary to perform other diagnostic imaging tools to increase the sensitivity and closure of the diagnosis of temporal arteritis.
- Ling ML, Yosar J, Lee BW, Shah SA, Jiang IW, Finniss A, Allende A, Francis IC. The diagnosis and management of temporal arteritis. Clin Exp Optom. 2020 Sep;103(5):572-582. doi: 10.1111/cxo.12975.
- Serling-Boyd N, Stone JH. Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of giant cell arteritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2020 May;32(3):201-207. doi: 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000700.
- Ponte C, Martins-Martinho J, Luqmani RA. Diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2020 May 1;59(Suppl 3):iii5-iii16. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez553.
- Bowling K, Rait J, Atkinson J, Srinivas G. Temporal artery biopsy in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis: Does the end justify the means? Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2017 Jun 15;20:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2017.06.020.
- Luqmani R, Lee E, Singh S, Gillett M, Schmidt WA, Bradburn M, Dasgupta B, Diamantopoulos AP, Forrester-Barker W, Hamilton W, Masters S, McDonald B, McNally E, Pease C, Piper J, Salmon J, Wailoo A, Wolfe K, Hutchings A. The Role of Ultrasound Compared to Biopsy of Temporal Arteries in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis (TABUL): a diagnostic accuracy and costeffectiveness study. Health Technol Assess. 2016 Nov;20(90):1-238. doi: 10.3310/hta20900.
- Butendieck R Jr, Calamia K, Sandin A. A study of temporal artery biopsy for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2022 Sep 12. doi: 10.1007/s10067-022-06371-0.
- Mehta K, Eid M, Gangadharan A, Pritchard A, Lin CC, Goodney P, Stableford J. The utility of the bilateral temporal artery biopsy for diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. J Vasc Surg. 2022 Jun 13:S0741-5214(22)01624-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2022.04.043.
- Hansen MS, Terslev L, Jensen MR, Brittain JM, Døhn UM, Faber C, Heegaard S, Klefter ON, Kønig EB, Subhi Y, Wiencke AK, Hamann S. Comparison of temporal artery ultrasound versus biopsy in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Eye (Lond). 2022 Jan 29. doi: 10.1038/s41433-022-01947-1.
- Muniz Castro HM, Bhattacharjee MB, Chaudhry IA, Chuang AZ, Mankiewicz KA, Adesina OO. Diagnosis of giant cell arteritis using clinical, laboratory, and histopathological findings in patients undergoing temporal artery biopsy. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2022 Oct;221:107377. doi: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2022.107377.